- Horst Rittel's (1967) original design-related term was developed for use in a managerial context, when (Rittel & Webber, 1973) defined 'wicked problems' using ten characteristic features. Jeffrey Conklin (2006) later generalised the idea using only six.
Conklin's Six Indicators:
- The problem is not understood until after the formulation of a solution.
- Wicked problems have no stopping rule.
- Solutions to wicked problems are not right or wrong.
- Every wicked problem is essentially novel and unique.
- Every solution to a wicked problem is a 'one shot operation.'
- Wicked problems have no given alternative solutions.
- Churchman, C. W. (1967). Wicked problems. Management Science, 14(4), B-141 and B-142
- Conklin, Jeffrey (2006). Dialogue mapping : building shared understanding of wicked problems. Chichester, England: Wiley Publishing. ISBN 978-0-470-01768-